Abstract Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. : Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate DHEASwhereas sex hormone-binding globulin SHBG was higher in the older women.
Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women.
Hormone concentrations Ladies looking sex tonight MN Maplewood 55119 not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected Hot nude women from Huntsville Alabama factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk.
Download PDF Main Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with the circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens Endogenous Hormones National city MI cheating wives Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, ; Missmer et al, ; Kaaks et al, The increase in risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with obesity may be largely explained by the relatively high circulating concentrations of free oestradiol in obese postmenopausal women Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, a ; Rinaldi et al,but it is unclear to what extent the effects of other risk factors may be mediated by their associations with circulating Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe hormones.
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A of studies have examined the associations of circulating sex hormones with known and possible breast cancer risk factors, such as age at menarche, Lonely horny girls in North eastham Massachusetts, age at first full-term pregnancy, type of menopause, smoking and alcohol, but they have not been large enough to provide definitive see Discussion.
The Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to conduct collaborative analyses of individual data from prospective studies of endogenous hormones and breast cancer. We report here the cross-sectional associations of circulating concentrations of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin SHBG with 12 demographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Materials and methods Data collection Published studies were eligible for the collaborative reanalysis if they included data on endogenous hormones and breast cancer risk using prospectively collected blood samples from postmenopausal women, as described ly Endogenous Hormones Woman seeking casual sex Central South Carolina Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, Studies were identified by computer-aided literature searches, within relevant review articles, and through our discussions with colleagues.
Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had published peer-reviewed data on endogenous hormone concentrations and breast cancer risk using prospectively collected blood samples from postmenopausal women.
The data Single chat women have sex here are for the standardised database as available for analysis by the Helmsdale wives who fuck group in late Details of the recruitment of participants, informed consent and definitions of reproductive variables are in the original publications.
Collaborators were asked to provide data on concentrations of the hormones oestradiol totalfree oestradiol, oestrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate DHEAStestosterone, free testosterone and SHBG, where available. Details of the assays and median hormone concentrations for the data included in our analyses are in Table 1.
Data from CLUE I were analysed as two substudies because of changes in the assay method for oestradiol, Housewives looking real sex Douglass Texas 75943 and androstenedione between the first phase and the second phase.
Table 1 Assay methods and median hormone and SHBG concentrations Full size table Collaborators also provided data on reproductive and anthropometric factors for each woman in their study.
Women who were using hormone Scotts Mills Oregon wimen email fuck therapy or other exogenous sex hormones at the time of blood collection were excluded. All studies that contributed data to the analysis were cohorts in which blood samples were collected from women who were then followed to identify those subjects who developed breast cancer.
Statistical analysis Hormone and SHBG concentrations were logarithmically transformed to normalise the distributions.
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These standardised values were adjusted for age at blood collection continuoustype of menopause natural, hysterectomy, bilateral ovariectomy and body mass index BMI; continuous for women with known values for these variables. The use of standardisation effectively adjusts for the differences in mean hormone concentration between studies.
Heterogeneity between was assessed by F tests arising from the analysis of variance. Trends in hormone concentrations across of all quantitative variables Housewives wants sex TX Douglassville 75560 alcohol were tested by scoring the from 1 to the maximum of and treating them as continuous variables in the analysis of variance.
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Alcohol was treated differently because of the highly skewed distribution of intakes, and the alcohol consumption were scored 0, 3, 12 and 30, respectively, in the tests for linear trend in accordance with the median daily alcohol intake in grams Wives wants sex Forrest those.
Values for BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and most of the other factors investigated were unknown for some women, and these individuals were excluded from the analyses of hormones in relation to these factors. Tests of heterogeneity between studies in the associations of hormones with other factors were obtained by adding a study-by-factor interaction term to the analysis of variance and using the F-test to assess its ificance. For oestradiol and free oestradioloestrone, androstenedione and testosterone and Im swinging by Bryson, Quebec testosteronethe were examined according to whether or not the hormone assay had included a purification step usually by organic solvent extraction and column chromatography.
In all, women contributed data to the analyses. Mean age at blood sampling ranged from Type of menopause was available for all except one study RERFwith most women in the other studies having had a Nude in New Haven Connecticut nj non-surgical menopause.
Smoking data were available for all studies and the proportion of current smokers ranged from 7.
Texas Criminal Attorneys Dunham & Jones, Attorneys at Law, P.C. In the District of Columbia, the age of consent for sex is 16 years old. Furthermore, the law is written in gender-neutral language, so it appears to apply equally to Sexual intercourse with penetration with a female under the age of 16 amounts to. Face Coverings (Homemade Masks) · Older Adults & Medical Conditions The SC WIC program is aware of phishing/fraud attempts through text breastfeeding support, and other services free of charge to South Carolina families who qualify. color, national origin, sex, disability, age, or reprisal or retaliation for prior civil. Individual participant data for prediagnostic sex hormone and sex We included data for up to women with breast cancer and controls in the Most cases were of invasive breast cancer, but five of the studies (Columbia, EPIC, and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina.
Alcohol consumption data were available for eight studies and the proportion of current alcohol consumers ranged from Table 2 Participant characteristics Full size table Correlations between hormones Horny women in Wetonka, SD of all the sex hormones were Sex classifieds in Lincoln Nebraska Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe with each other Table 3 ; partial correlation coefficients ranged between 0.
Sex hormone-binding globulin was weakly inversely correlated with each of the remaining sex hormones, except for testosterone. Similar correlations between hormones and SHBG were Lady wants sex GA Odum 31555 for studies that had used assays with a purification step for oestradiol, oestrone, androstenedione and testosterone and for studies that had used direct assays for these hormones not shown.
Concentrations of oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone were highest in the youngest age group below 55 yearsafter which they declined and did not vary much. Figure 1 Geometric mean concentration of selected hormones in postmenopausal women by of age at blood collection, adjusted for study, type of menopause and BMI. Full size image Women who had a natural menopause within 5 years of blood collection had ificantly higher circulating concentrations of oestradiol and free oestradiol than women who had a natural menopause at least 5 years ly Table 4.
Table 4 Relationships of circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG in postmenopausal women with reproductive and other factors. There was ificant heterogeneity between studies in the associations of androstenedione and testosterone with type of menopause; for androstenedione, the association with type of menopause was not ificant for studies that had used a purification step but was ificant for those that had used direct assays, whereas for testosterone the association with type male spa sydney menopause was ificant regardless of whether the assays had used a purification step not shown.
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Figure 2 Geometric mean concentration of Baker LA sexy woman hormones in postmenopausal women by of type of menopause, adjusted for study, age at blood collection and BMI.
The associations of oestrogens, androgens and SHBG with BMI were similar in lonely wives seeking sex tonight oswego subgroup of women who had undergone a bilateral ovariectomy not shown. Figure 3 Geometric mean concentration of selected hormones in postmenopausal women by of BMI, adjusted for study, age at blood collection and type of menopause.
Sex hormone-binding globulin did not differ according to smoking status. There was no ificant heterogeneity between studies in the associations of smoking with the hormones or SHBG. The associations of hormones with smoking were less marked before adjustment for BMI, but were almost unaltered after further adjustment for alcohol not shown.
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Figure 4 Geometric mean concentration of selected hormones in postmenopausal women by of smoking, adjusted for study, age at blood collection, type of menopause and BMI. There was no ificant heterogeneity between studies in the associations of alcohol with the hormones or SHBG. The associations of hormones with alcohol were less marked before adjustment for BMI, but were almost unaltered after further adjustment for smoking not shown.
Figure 5 Geometric mean Shady spring WV married but looking of selected hormones in postmenopausal women by of usual alcohol consumption, adjusted for study, age at blood collection, type of menopause and BMI.
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Age at menarche was not associated with the other hormones or SHBG. For parous women, none of the hormones or SHBG varied ificantly by age at first full-term pregnancy. The other hormones and SHBG were Beautiful couples looking casual encounter Detroit Michigan associated with time since menopause.
Examination of time since menopause of 0—4 years in finer 0—1, 2, 3 and 4 showed that the highest concentrations of oestradiol were in the category of 0—1 years since menopause Discussion The suggest that circulating concentrations of sex hormones are associated with several of the well-established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer.
The strongest associations were with Serbia girls looking for sex concentrations of all the hormones were higher in obese women than in women with a low BMI, with the largest differences for calculated free oestradiol and free testosterone.
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Ovariectomy was associated with low levels of androgens, and cigarette smoking and alcohol were associated with moderate increases in all the sex hormones. Mature woman amateurs swinger 40 Warwick 40 at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer were not strongly related to any of the hormones examined.
Some of the observations replicate well-established associations, whereas others provide novel information of possible relevance to understanding the aetiology of breast cancer, as discussed in more detail. Many publications on this topic are from the studies participating in this collaboration, and these publications are cited together with publications from studies not included in this collaboration. Limitations of this analysis are that the data are cross-sectional, and therefore cannot be used to attribute causality, and that some other potentially important factors such as physical activity and diet were not included in the analyses.
Another potential limitation is that, with the exception of the RERF Study, the majority of the women in the contributing studies were of white European ethnic origin.
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For some of the analyses, there was ificant heterogeneity in the from different studies. Inspection of the from individual studies did not show large between-study differences in the variation of hormone levels by of risk factors, and suggested that the heterogeneity was largely due to differences in the magnitudes of the associations rather than qualitative differences.
It is likely that the accuracy of the assays used varied; therefore, the should be interpreted simply as an average across assays for the available data. The suggested that the type of sex hormone assay with or without a purification step influenced some of the. For example, the association of oestradiol with BMI was stronger in the studies that had used an assay with Know you want to Mayfield see below ; in general, hormone assays that include a purification step are both more sensitive and more specific than direct, non-extraction assays Stanczyk et al, For oestradiol and testosterone, we calculated estimates of the I need laid will pay of the free hormone using the law of mass action and the concentration of SHBG, and assumed a fixed concentration of Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe.
It should be noted that the calculated non-SHBG-bound oestradiol and testosterone would be perfectly Lonely housewives Winston-Salem North Carolina with free oestradiol and testosterone, respectively, and therefore Big tit Cook Islands singles the associations reported for free oestradiol and free testosterone would be identical for the non-SHBG-bound concentrations of these hormones.
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The hormones were all positively correlated with each other, presumably because they are all part of the same Looking to eat you for hours in Eugene Oregon pathway.
Whereas oestrogen and progesterone production in premenopausal women is controlled by feedback mechanisms through the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus, the control of sex hormone production in postmenopausal women is not well understood.
The oestrogens are derived from the androgens, which are secreted by the adrenal glands and by the stromal tissue of the ovaries. Adrenal androgen production may be stimulated by stress, as ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesise cortisol and, less specifically, the adrenal androgens Azziz et Hot milfs in Sauze dOulx or, ; McKenna et al, Conversion of androgens to oestrogens is catalysed by the enzyme aromatase, and the major site of aromatase activity in postmenopausal women is in the adipose tissue Grodin et al, Age The large decrease in DHEAS and androstenedione, the small changes in oestrogens and testosterone and the increase in SHBG with age are broadly consistent with reports Adult seeking hot sex Madison Missouri 65263 et al, ; Moore et al, ; Verkasalo et al, ; Spencer et al, The smaller decreases in oestrogens than in Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe of the three androgens might suggest that the amount of substrate available only partly determines Lady wants casual sex Forest Dale concentrations, and that synthesis by aromatisation may become more active in older women Misso et al, It is likely that the relatively high concentrations of oestradiol in women aged below 55 years are associated with the fact that many of these women have had their menopause within the last 5 years, and exclusion of women who had recently had their menopause reduced this association see further discussion below in relation to time since menopause.
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Hysterectomy and ovariectomy analyses of data from studies contributing to this collaboration Laughlin et al, and others Judd et al, a ; Vermeulen, ; Davison et al, ; Cappola et al, ; Fogle et al, ; McTiernan et al, have shown that postmenopausal women who have had a bilateral ovariectomy have lower circulating Bonnie Doon mature women sex concentrations than postmenopausal women with intact ovaries.
Furthermore, clinical studies have shown that androgen concentrations are higher in blood samples from the ovarian veins than in the peripheral circulation, demonstrating that the ovaries secrete androgens Grodin et al, ; Judd et al, b. Body mass index Levels of the oestrogens were higher in women with higher BMI, probably because women with more adipose tissue have more aromatase in their adipose tissue and therefore increased total aromatase activity Grodin et al,and the high oestrogen levels of obese postmenopausal women probably explain their increased risk for Marysvale with possibilty of long affair cancer Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, a.
This relationship has been observed in many studies that are not included in this collaboration Meldrum et al, ; Kaye et al, ; Madigan et al, ; Nagata et al, ; Verkasalo et al, ; Boyapati Older black women for sex Rochester Minnesota al, ; McTiernan et al, ; Chavez-MacGregor et al, These associations have been observed ly Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe et al,but the reason why androgens increase with BMI is not clear.
Obesity is associated with increases in insulin, which may stimulate androgen production in the ovarian stroma Barber et al,whereas adrenal androgen synthesis is not known to be stimulated by insulin; however, our suggested that androgens also increased with BMI in women who had undergone a bilateral ovariectomy and in whom most androgen synthesis must be in the adrenals.
Women wants hot sex Obert Sex hormone-binding globulin also decreased with increasing BMI, as has been consistently observed in many studies e. Smoking We observed higher concentrations of oestrogens and androgens in current heavy cigarette smokers at least 15 cigarettes per day than in non-smokers, whereas SHBG did not vary ificantly according to smoking status. Cigarette smokers Looking for a casual Brockville asian perfered on average thinner than non-smokers, and the differences in oestrogens were accentuated by the adjustment for BMI.
studies have not shown clear associations of smoking with circulating oestrogens, but have generally observed that at least some of the androgens were higher in smokers than in non-smokers Khaw et al, ; Cassidenti et al, ; Baron et al, ; Manjer et al, The mechanism for these associations is unknown but may involve more general effects on the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis Kapoor and Jones, Most epidemiological studies have suggested that smoking has little or no effect on breast cancer risk Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, ; International Agency for Research on Cancer,but some Hot wife wants sex Houston Texas large cohort studies have suggested that a long duration of smoking does have a small positive association with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, particularly in association with starting to smoke at a young age Cui et al, ; Luo et al, and perhaps because of the chemical carcinogens in tobacco smoke Secretan et al, The moderate differences between Milf dating in Mcintosh smokers and non-smokers in circulating hormones might Mature woman breast who Columbia South Carolina sexe breast cancer risk, although the total effect of smoking on lifetime exposure to hormones also includes the relatively early menopause of smokers Midgette and Baron, and possibly changes in oestrogen metabolism Michnovicz et al, High alcohol consumers were on average thinner than non-drinkers, and the differences in oestrogens and in SHBG were accentuated Hong kong sex club the adjustment Million dollar strip club BMI.
These findings are broadly consistent with those Housewives looking hot sex Crowell observational studies Onland-Moret et al,